User:Vikram Kaadam

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Vikram Kadam is a final year Mechanical Engineering student at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, who participated in GSOC2011 with ASCEND. Vikram withdrew before completing the programme.

Development branch: vikram: (especially vikram:models/solar)

GSoC 2011 Participation

GSoC 2011 Proposal: Improvement on ASCEND's support for renewable energy system modelling

Mentor: John Pye


Improvement on ASCEND's support for renewable energy system modelling:

  • Expanding the model library of Renewable Energy System modelling
  • Enhancing the models' usability and functionality and making it more robust


Immediate Task:

  • Modifying SunPos Model
  • Creating robust models from Chapter 2, Patnode Thesis: Steady State Models of Solar Radiation Processor, Receiver, Concentrator types at the SEGS

By Mid Term Review:

  • May 23 - May 30 : Modifying SunPos Model and creating robust models from Chapter 2, Patnode Thesis
  • May 30 - June 6 : Solar Receivers
  • June 6 - June 13: Solar Concentrators
  • June 13 - June 20: Solar radiation processor and Storage Tank
  • June 20 - June27 : Heat Exchanger
  • June 27 - Jul 4  : Pump,Flow Mixer
  • Jul 4 - Jul 11 : Auxiliary Heater

By Final Term Review:

  • Jul 15 - Jul 22: Ducting and Piping Losses
  • Jul 22 - Jul 29: Card reader
  • Jul 29 - Aug 5: Space heating load
  • Aug 5 - Aug 12: Relief valve
  • Aug 12 - Aug 19: Solar process Economics load model:
  • Aug 19 - Aug 22: Final Documentation

Progress Report

July 14, 2011

New Models

July 11, 2011


New Models

Jun 30, 2011

Sun Tracker vikram:models/solar/tracker.a4l

The different kinds of the tracking mechanism are considered to get the governing equation, which in turn, along with sunpos, gives the relation between time, position, orientation of the collector and incidence angle.

Status : tracker 2 works, tracker 1 has issues

Packed Bed Thermal Storage Tank at vikram:models/solar/packed_bed_thermal_storage_tank.a4l


  • One dimensional plug flow
  • No axial conduction or dispersion
  • No mass transfer
  • No heat loss to the environment
  • No temperature gradients within the energy storing solid particles (valid for Biot number less than 0.1)

In this model, a packed bed thermal storage tank, in which pebbles are used to store heat, is modelled.

Status : Completed mathematically but diverges

Cylindrical Absorber vikram:models/solar/cylindrical_absorber.a4l


  • Cylindrical absorbing tube
  • Single glass cover over the absorbing tube.
  • No temperature gradient around the receiver tube
  • No loss due to conduction through the structure supports horizontal receiver tubes

A cylindrical collector is modelled for both concentrator and flat plate systems. This model gives the total heat absorbed by water after all the convective, radiative and pipe losses.

Status: completed mathematically but diverges

Currently working on :

  • Pump: Fixed flow rate pump with heat losses
  • Flow mixer: Multiple flow inputs to the mixer and mixture fluid temperature and flow rate to be given as outputs.

Jun 20, 2011

Already done

Currently working on

  • Cylindrical receivers and parabolic collector at vikram:models/solar/cylindrical_absorber.a4l (Incomplete)
  • Packed bed thermal storage tank. (Mathematically modelled / Not commited yet)
  • Liquid thermal storage tank. (Mathematically modelled / Not commited yet)

May 23, 2011

Pre-acceptance Notes

1. Solar field model vikram:models/solar/solar_field_model.a4l

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Solar field model.

This model uses the approach by Patnode to the field efficiency of solar field at SEGS.

Detailed analysis of the model can be found in the original thesis.

2. Solar field model using sunpos.a4l vikram:models/solar/solar_field_model_using_sunpos.a4l

This model is same as 1st one except it uses johnpye/sunpos.a4c instead of direct equations for sun-position related variables.

3. Solar field model (using fprops for specific enthalpy)


This model is same as 1st one except it used fprops library in ascend instead of direct equations for specific enthalpy.

Issue : call fprops property function gives 'out of bounds' error for input rho and T.

4. Flat plate collector model vikram:models/solar/flat_plate_collector.a4l

Here, He is trying to model commonly used 'fin and tube' type of absorber,a flat plate collector, for liquid heating. He has considered 1 glass cover. Model aims at calculating overall heat loss coefficient (Ul) and useful energy gain (Qu).

Mean plate temperature and ambient temperature are given.

Thus model is valid for the range of 'effective transmittance-absorptance product' which satisfy below mentioned assumptions. Also

model does not calculate the solar gain S {= (effective transmittance-absorptance product) * ( solar radiation falling on tilted

collector surface)} but take it as direct entry.


  1. Performance is steady state.
  2. Construction is of parallel sheet and tube type.
  3. The headers cover small area and can be neglected.
  4. There is no absorption of solar energy by covers insofar as it affects losses.
  5. The headers provide uniform flow to the collector tubes.
  6. There is one dimensional heat flow from the covers.
  7. There is one dimensional heat flow from the black insulation.
  8. The covers are opaque to infrared radiation.
  9. There is negligible temperature drop through covers
  10. The sky can be considered a black body for long wavelength radiation at equivalent sky temperature.

Issue : Iteration exceeded error. This probably Needs better guesses and will be resolved soon.

5. Some types definition required by above models can be found vikram:models/solar/mytypes.a4l.